Scripture among the Apologists: Bibliography

Ancient Sources

Eccl. Hist. Eusebius. Ecclesiastical History: The History of the Church from Christ to Constantine. Translated by G. A. Williamson. Revised and edited by Andrew Louth. London: Penguin Books, 1989.
Lives Jerome. Lives of Illustrious Men. Translated by Ernest Cushing Richardson. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 3. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.
CA Josephus. Contra Apionem. Translated by William Whiston. The Works of Flavius Josephus in Four Volumes, Volume IV. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1974.
Dialogue Justin Martyr. Dialogue with Trypho. Translated by Thomas B. Falls. Revised by Thomas P. Halton. Selections from Fathers of the Church, Volume 3. Edited by Michael Slusser. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of American Press, 2003.
Apology –. First Apology. Translated by Leslie William Barnard. Ancient Christian Writers: The Works of the Fathers in Translation 56. New York: Paulist Press, 1997.
Oration Tatian. Address to the Greeks. Translated by J.E. Ryland. Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 2. Edited by Roberts, Donaldson, and Coxe. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885.
Autolycum Theophilus of Antioch. Ad Autolycum. Translated by Robert M. Grant. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
Acta The Martyrdom of the Holy Martyrs. Translated by Marcus Dods. Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 1. Edited by Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885.


Modern Sources

 Abbot, Ezra. The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel: External Evidences. Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1880.

Allert, Craig D. Revelation, Truth, Canon, and Interpretation: Studies in Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho. Leiden: Brill, 2002.

Aune, David E. “Justin Martyr’s Use of the Old Testament.” Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society 9, 4 (1966): 179-197.

Aune, David E. The New Testament in Its Literary Environment. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1987.

Barnard, L. W. “The Old Testament and Judaism in the Writings of Justin Martyr.” Vetus Testamentum 14 (1964): 396-406.

Barton, John. Holy Writings Sacred Text: The Canon in Early Christianity. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1997.

Bellinzoni, Arthur J. The Sayings of Jesus in the Writings of Justin Martyr. Leiden: Brill, 1967.

Bentivegna, J. “A Christianity Without Christ by Theophilus of Antioch.” Studia Patristica 13 (1975): 107-130.

Biblia Patristica: Index des Citations et Allusion Bibliques Dans la Litterature Patristique: Des origines a Clement d’Alexandrie et Tertullian. Edited by Equipe de Recherece Assosiee au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, et al. Paris: Centre d’Analyse et de Documentation Patristiques, 1975.

Bishop, Eric Francis Fox. “Some Reflections on Justin Martyr and the Nativity Narratives.” Evangelical Quarterly 39 (1967): 30-39.

Bonner, Campbell. The Homily on the Passion by Melito of Sardis and Some Fragments of the Apocryphal Ezekiel. London: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1940.

Bousset, Wilhelm. Die Evangeliencitate Justins des Martyrers: In Ihrem Wert Fur Die Evangelienkritik. Gottingen: Kessinger, 1891.

Brooke, George J. “Memory, Cultural Memory and Rewriting Scripture.” Edited by Jozsef Zsengeller. Pages 119-136 in Rewritten Bible after Fifty Years: Texts, Terms, or Techniques? A Last Dialogue with Geza Vermes. Supplements for the Study of Judaism 166. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

Clausen, O. “Die Theologie des Theophilus von Antiochien.” ZWT 46 (1903): 81-141.

Cosgrove, Charles H. “Justin Martyr and the Emerging Christian Canon: Observations on the Purpose and Destination of the Dialogue with Trypho.” Vigiliae Christianae 36 (1982): 209-232.

Danielou, Jean. Theology of Jewish Christianity: A History of Early Christianity Before the Council of Nicaea. Translated by John A. Baker. Louisville: Westminster Press, 1977.

Davey, D. M. “Justin Martyr and the Fourth Gospel.” Scripture 17 (1965): 117-122.

Dunn, J. D. G. Christology in the Making. London: SCM, 1980.

Foster, Paul. “The Text of the New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers.” Edited by Charles E. Hill and Michael J. Kruger. Pages 282-301 in The Early Text of the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Frend, William H. C. “The O. T. in the Age of the Greek Apologists (A.D. 130-180).” Scottish Journal of Theology 26, 2 (1973): 129-150.

Gamble, Harry Y. “The Book Trade in the Roman Empire.” Edited by Charles E. Hill and Michael J. Kruger. Pages 23-36 in The Early Text of the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Giet, Stanislas. Basile de Cesaree: Homilies sur l’Hexaemeron. Sources chretiennes 26. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf, 1950.

Goldfahn, A. H. “Justinus Martyr und die Agada.” Monatsschrift fur Geschichte und Wissenshaft des Judentums 22 (1873): 49-269.

Grant, Robert M. Greek Apologists of the Second Century. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1988.

Grant, Robert M. “Introduction” Pages ix-xxv in Ad Autolycum. Theophilus of Antioch. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.

Grant, Robert M. Jesus After the Gospels: The Christ of the Second Century. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1990.

Grant, Robert M. “Justin Martyr.” Edited by David Noel Freedman. Pages 1133-1134 in Anchor Bible Dictionary,  Volume 3. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Grant, Robert M. “The Bible of Theophilus of Antioch.” Journal of Biblical Literature 66, 2 (1947): 173-196.

Grant, Robert M. “The Textual Tradition of Theophilus of Antioch.” Vigiliae Christianae 6, 3 (1952): 146-159.

Grant, Robert M. “Theophilus of Antioch to Autolycus.” Harvard Theological Review 40 (1947): 227-256

Gregory, Andrew F. and Christopher Tuckett. “Reflections on Method: What constitutes the Use of the Writings that later formed the New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers?” Edited by Andrew F. Gregory and Christopher M. Tuckett. Pages 61-82 in The Reception of the New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Grube, K. L. “Die hermeneutischen Grundsatzen Justins des Martyrers,” Der Katholik 60 (1880): 139-59.

Hagner, Donald A. “The Sayings of Jesus in the Apostolic Fathers and Justin Martyr.” Edited by David Wenham. Pages 233-268 in Gospel Perspectives: The Jesus Tradition Outside the Gospels: Volume 5. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1985.

Harris, J. R. Testimonies, Volume I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1916. Reprinted 2012.

Harris, J. R. Testimonies, Volume II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1920. Reprinted 2012.

Hill, Charles E. “’In These Very Words’: Methods and Standards of Literary Borrowing in the Second Century.” Edited by Charles E. Hill and Michal J, Kruger. Pages 261-281 in The Early Text of the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Hommes, N. J. Het Testimoniaboek: Studien over O.T. citaten in het N.T. en bij de Patres, met chitische beschouwingen over de theorieen van J. Rendel Harris en D. Plooy. Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers-Maatschappi, 1935.

Hurtado, Larry W. “’Jesus’ as God’s Name, and Jesus as God’s Embodied Name in Justin Martyr.” Edited by Sara Parvis and Paul Foster. Pages 128-136 in Justin Martyr and His Worlds.  Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2007.

Hurtado, Larry W. The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins. Grant Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006.

Jacobs, Andrew S. “A Jew’s Jew: Paul and the Early Christian Problem of Jewish Origins.” The Journal of Religion 86, 2 (2006): 258-286.

Kannengieser, Charles. Handbook of Patristic Exegesis: The Bible in Ancient Christianity. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Koester, Helmut. “History and Cult in the Gospel of John and in Ignatius of Antioch.” Translated by Arthur Bellinzoni. The Bultmann School of Biblical Interpretation: New Directions? San Francisco: Harper and Row Publishers, 1965.

Kohler, Wolf-Dieter. Die Rezeption des Mattausevangeliums in der Zeir vor Irenaus. WUNT 2/24. Tubingen, Mohr/Siebeck, 1987.

Kostenberger, Andreas J. and Michael J. Kruger. The Heresy of Orthodoxy: How Contemporary Culture’s Fascination with Diversity Has Reshaped Our Understanding of Early Christianity. Wheaton: Crossway Publishers, 2010.

Loofs, Friedrich. Theophilus von Antiochien Adversus Marcionem und die anderen theologischen Quellen die Irenaeus. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1930.

Michael Kruger. “Early Christian Attitudes toward the Reproduction of Texts.” Edited by Charles E. Hill and Michael J. Kruger. Pages 63-80 in The Early Text of the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Kugel, James. Traditions of the Bible: A Guide to the Bible As It Was at the Start of the Common Era. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Marshall, J. L. “Some Observations on Justin Martyr’s Use of Testimonies.” Studia Patristica 16, 2 (1985): 197-200.

Massaux, Edouard. The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian Literature Before Saint Irenaeus: Book Three: The Apologists and Didache. Translated by Norman J. Belvel and Suzanne Hecht. Edited by Arthur Bellinzoni. New Gospel Studies 5/3. Mercer, G.A.: Peeters, 1990.

McDonald, Lee Martin. The Biblical Canon: Its Origin, Transmission, and Authority. Peabody, M.A.: Hendrickson Publishers, 2007.

McVey, Kathleen E.“The Use of Stoic Cosmogeny in Theophilus of Antioch’s Heaemeron.” Edited by M.S. Burrow and Paul Rorem. Pages 32-58 in Hermeneutics in Historical Perspective: Studies in Honor of Karlfield Froehlich on his Sixtieth Birthday. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.

Mender, Siegfried. “Nokodemus.” Journal of Biblical Literature 77, 4 (1958): 293-323.

Metzger, Bruce M. The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.

Minns, Denis and Paul Parvis. Justin, Philosopher and Martyr: Apologies. Oxford Early Christian Texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

O’Neill, J. C. The Theology of Acts in its historical setting. London: S. P. C. K., 1961.

Osborn, E. Justin Martyr. BHT 47. Tubingen: Mohr, 1973.

Overbeck, F. “Uber das Verhaltness Justins des Martyrers zur Apostelgeschichte.” ZWTh 15 (1878): 305-49.

Parvis, Paul. “Justin Martyr.” The Expository Times 120, 53 (2008): 53-61.

Parvis, Sara. “Justin Martyr and the Apologetic Tradition.” Edited by Sara Parvis and Paul Foster. Pages 115-127 in Justin Martyr and His Worlds. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2007.

Piper, Otto A. “The Nature of the Gospel According to Justin Martyr.” The Journal of Religion 41, 3 (1961): 155-168.

Plooij, D. Studies in the Testimony Book . Afdeeling letterkunde Nieuwe Reeks, Deel XXXII No 2. Amsterdam: Verhandelingen der koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, 1932.

Prahlow, Jacob J. Discerning Witnesses: First and Second Century Textual Studies in Early Christian Authority. MA Thesis. Winston-Salem: Wake Forest University, 2014.

Prigent, P. L’Epitre de Barnabe I-XVI et ses Sources: Les Testimonia dans le Christianisme Primitif. Paris: J. Gabalda et Companie, 1961.

Pryor, J. W. “Justin Martyr and the Fourth Gospel.” The Second Century: A Journal of Early Christian Studies 9, 3 (1992): 153-169.

Purves, George T. The Testimony of Justin Martyr to Early Christianity. New York, 1889. Republished Charleston: BiblioBazaar, 2010.

Quispel, Gilles. De bronnen van Tertullianus’ Adversus Marcionem. Leiden: Burgersdijk and Niermans, 1943.

Rankin, David Ivan. From Clement to Origen: The Social and Historical Context of the Church Fathers. Burlington, V.T.: Ashgate, 2006.

Richter, Georg. “Zum sogenannten Tauftext Joh 3,5.” Edited by J. Hainz. Studient zum Johannesevangelium. BU 13. Regensburg: Pustet, 1977.

Rogers, Rick. Theophilus of Antioch: The Life and Thought of a Second-Century Bishop. New York: Lexington Books, 2000.

Rogers, Rick. “Theophilus of Antioch.” The Expository Times 120 (2009): 214-224.

Romanides, John S. “Justin Martyr and the Fourth Gospel.” Greek Orthodox Theological Review 4 (1958): 115-134.

Sanday, William. The Criticism of the Fourth Gospel: Eight Lectures on the Morse Foundation. New York: University of Michigan Press, 1905.

Sanday, William. The Gospels in the Second Century. London: Macmillan, 1876.

Schaff, Philip. Apostolic Christianity: A.D. 1-100. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1955.

Schoedel, William R. “Theophilus of Antioch: Jewish Christian?” Illinois Classical Studies 18 (1993): 279-297.

Schopp, Ludwig (editor). Writings of Saint Justin Martyr. In The Fathers of the Church: A New Translation. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1948.

Shotwell, Willis A. The Biblical Exegesis of Justin Martyr. London: S. P. C. K., 1965.

Sibinga, Joost Smith. The Old Testament Text of Justin Martyr, Volume 1: The Pentateuch. Leiden: Brill, 1963.

Skarsaune, Oskar. “Jewish Christian Sources Used by Justin Martyr and Some Other Greek and Latin Fathers.” Edited by Oskar Skarsaune and Reidar Hvalvik. Pages 379-416 in The Early Centuries: Jewish Believers in Jesus. Peabody, M.A.: Hendrickson, 2007.

Skarsaune, Oskar. “Justin and His Bible.” Edited by Sara Parvis and Paul Foster. Pages 53-76 in Justin Martyr and His Worlds.  Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2007.

Skarsaune, Oskar. “Justin and the Apologists.” Edited by D. Jeffrey Bingham. Pages 121-136 in The Routledge Companion to Early Christian Thought. London: Routledge, 2010.

Skarsaune, Oskar. The Proof From Prophecy: A Study in Justin Martyr’s Proof-Text Tradition: Text-Type, Provenance, Theological Profile. Leiden: Brill, 1987.

Stowe, C. E. “Sketch of Justin Martyr”, Biblitheca Sacra 9 (1852): 821-830

Stuhlhofer, Franz. “Der Ertrag von Bibelstellenregistern fur die Kanonsgeschichte.” Zeitschrift fur die alttestamentliche wissenschaft 100 (1988): 244-261.

Thornton, Claus-Jurgen. “Justin und das Marusevangelium.” Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der alteren Kirche 84 (1993): 93-110

Tuckett, Gregory. The Gospel of Mary. Oxford Early Christian Studies Series. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Tuckett, Gregory “What is ‘New Testament Study?’ The New Testament and Early Christianity.” New Testament Studies 20, 2 (2014): 157-184.

Volkmar, Gustav. Uber Justin den Martyrer und sein Verhaltniss zu unsern Evangelien/ Zurich: F. Riesling, 1853.

von Loewenich, Walther. Das Johannes-Verstandnis im zweiten Jahrhundert. Giessen: Topelman, 1932.

Widdicombe, Peter. “Justin Martyr, Allegorical Interpretation, and the Greek Myths.” Edited by Elizabeth A. Livingstone. Pages 234-239 in Studia Patristica 31: Preaching, Second Century, Tertullian to Arnobius, Egypt before Nicaea. Leuven: Peeters, 1997.

Wendel, Susan J. Scriptural Interpretation and Community Self-Definition in Luke-Acts and the Writings of Justin Martyr. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Wright, David F. “Christian Faith in the Greek World: Justin Martyr’s Testimony.” Evangelical Quarterly 54, 2 (1982): 77-87.

Young, Frances. Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture. Peabody, M.A.: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002.


Published by Jacob J. Prahlow

Husband of Hayley. Dad of Bree and Judah. Lead pastor at Arise Church. MATS from Saint Louis University, MA from Wake Forest University, BA from Valparaiso University. Theologian and writer here and at Conciliar Post. Find me on social at @pastorjakestl

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