A Brief History of Communion: Five Reformation Views

This post is part of an ongoing series on the history of communion. The Reformation Church With the outbreak of theological reforms in the 16th century came considerable revisions and specifications of the theologies and practices of Communion. Essentially, five major views solidified: Tridentine, Consubstantial, Reformed, Via Media, and Memorialist.

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A Brief History of Communion: Medieval Christianity

This post is part of an ongoing series on the history of communion. The Medieval Church During the medieval period, the Church began to use a common liturgy for Eucharistic celebration, with prescribed texts and traditions for services and practice. Some differences emerged between the Eastern and Western branches of Christianity, differences which were formalizedContinue reading “A Brief History of Communion: Medieval Christianity”

A Brief History of Communion: 2nd to 5th Centuries

This post is part of an ongoing series on the history of communion. Second to Fifth Centuries After Justin, we see a proliferation of Christian writers, many of whom speak about Communion, some with great regularity. These Christians come from all corners of the Roman Empire and beyond: Gaul (Irenaeus), Egypt (Clement of Alexandria andContinue reading “A Brief History of Communion: 2nd to 5th Centuries”

A Brief History of Communion: Justin’s Apology

This post is part of an ongoing series on the history of communion. Justin’s Apology Justin Martyr, writing around 150 CE in Rome, provides a unique perspective into the weekly practice of Communion among second century Christians. Toward the end of his First Apology he outlines the liturgy of the Roman Church: Scripture readings followedContinue reading “A Brief History of Communion: Justin’s Apology”

A Brief History of Communion: Apostolic Fathers

This post is part of an ongoing series on the history of communion. The Apostolic Fathers The earliest non-canonical references to Communion come in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, namely Ignatius of Antioch (c. 108 CE) and the Didache (c. 110 CE). Ignatius, much like Paul in 1 Corinthians, indicates that he is veryContinue reading “A Brief History of Communion: Apostolic Fathers”

A Brief History of Communion: Origins

Christians of all sorts partake of some form of communion. Known by different names—the Lord’s Supper, Eucharist, Holy Communion, Breaking of Bread, Mass—and taken at different frequencies—daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly—this practice involving bread and wine stands as a testament to both Christian unity as well as divisions. What do contemporary Christians believe about the Lord’sContinue reading “A Brief History of Communion: Origins”

On Baptism (Part I)

In this two-part article, I offer some reflections on baptism, beginning in this post with the Bible and history and wrapping up with some musings on covenant and sacrament in the next. Baptism in the Acts of the Apostles Last summer I led a Bible study on the Acts of the Apostles. While I hadContinue reading “On Baptism (Part I)”

Thinking about Salvation in Early Christianity (Part II)

Most early Christians seem to have lived with a fairly basic understanding of soteriology. Beginning with Tertullian of Carthage, however, deeper investigation into specific aspects of soteriological doctrine began to circulate within the Church.[14] Philosophical language and concepts began to find more frequent use among the Fathers, and soon after the Fathers began teaching thatContinue reading “Thinking about Salvation in Early Christianity (Part II)”

Thinking about Salvation in Early Christianity (Part I)

By the early fourth century, the Christianity had spread across the Roman world with surprising speed, tenacity, and relative uniformity of belief. While the early Church was by no means completely uniform in doctrine, belief, or practice, the vast majority of Christians professed what has become known as Christian Orthodoxy.[1] Heresies such as Docetism, Ebionism,Continue reading “Thinking about Salvation in Early Christianity (Part I)”

Scripture in 1 Clement: Place in Scholarship

This post is part of an ongoing series examining the function and use of scripture in the early Christian writing known as 1 Clement. This project investigates how Clement employed composite citations of Jewish and Christian writings, particularly the synoptic tradition, to support his arguments for proper Christian theology and practice. In doing so, thisContinue reading “Scripture in 1 Clement: Place in Scholarship”