This post is part of an ongoing series examining the Christology of the Apocalypse of John.
The most common name applied to Jesus in Revelation is κύριος, which is used some twenty three times. Occasionally this designation comes within a larger title—such as “king of kings and Lord of lords” (17:14)—but many times it occurs as a simple designator of who Jesus is, appearing in place of his name. Building on the connections between κύριος and Hebrew Adonai, Cullmann argues that any connection of Jesus to the title “Lord” must recognize the theological and philological implications of that term in its Hebrew/Aramaic context. For Cullmann, one consequence of the application of κύριος to Jesus was that early Christians could apply to him “all the Old Testament passages which speak about God.” Thus when John refers to Jesus as κύριος—even in a seemingly offhanded manner (22:20–1)—that title remains full of theological importance, identifying the Lord Jesus with the κύριος Almighty. Continue reading