A Brief History of Communion: Medieval Christianity

This post is part of an ongoing series on the history of communion.

The Medieval Church

During the medieval period, the Church began to use a common liturgy for Eucharistic celebration, with prescribed texts and traditions for services and practice. Some differences emerged between the Eastern and Western branches of Christianity, differences which were formalized following the Great Schism of 1054 CE.1 In the Roman West, the liturgy increasingly occurred in Latin, even in non-Latin speaking areas which were evangelized. In the Byzantine East, Greek liturgies were the most common, although in many locations liturgy continued to be held in vernacular languages. Continue reading

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SSP: A Comparison of Patrician Scripture Registers

This post is the final contribution to the series on the Scriptures of Saint Patrick of Ireland.

As Fraz Stuhlhofer notes, one important aspect of considering scriptural citations in early Christian literature is to consult the findings of previous studies, especially those involving scripture registers. Accordingly, I have offered a summary of the major scripture registers concerning Patrick’s Confessio below. Continue reading

The Scriptures of Saint Patrick: Bibliography

This post is part of an ongoing series on the Scriptures of Saint Patrick of Ireland.

Aland, Kurt and Barbara Aland. The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, Second Edition. Translated by Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989.

Bieler, Ludwig. Codices Patriciani Latini: A Descriptive Catalogue of Latin Manuscripts Relating to St. Patrick. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1942. Continue reading

SSP: Findings on the Form of Patrick’s Bible

This post is part of an ongoing series on the Scriptures of Saint Patrick of Ireland.

saint-patrick-2Before summarizing the findings of this comparison, I must note the necessarily tentative nature of the following conclusions and the need for additional comparative work on this topic. This study has examined but six examples of Patrick’s work; given his numerous allusions and quotations to the Biblical text, I fully expect further research along these lines to provide additional insight into the form of Patrick’s Bible and the place of the Latin Bible in fifth century Ireland. Continue reading

SSP: Confessio 55 and Psalm 54

This post is part of an ongoing series on the Scriptures of Saint Patrick of Ireland.

Confessio 55 & Psalm 54:22  
Patrick O’Loughlin (168) ‘Cast your burden on God, and he will sustain you.’
  Bieler (88) & Conneely (48) Jacta cogitatum tuum in Deum et ipse te enutriet.
Psalm 54:22    
  Vulgate (54:23) proice super Dominum caritatem tuam et ipse enutriet te
  B (5th c. Italy) Jacta in Dominum curam tuam et ipse te enutriet
  Anglo-Saxon Psalter (8th c.) Jacta in Deum cogitatum tuum, et ipse te enutriet
  Roman Psalter (4th c.) Jacta in Deum cogitatum tuum;  et ipse te enutriet

Continue reading

SSP: Confessio 40 and Matthew 28

This post is part of an ongoing series on the Scriptures of Saint Patrick of Ireland.

Confessio 40 & Matthew 28:19-20  
Patrick O’Loughlin (161) ‘Go therefore,’ now, ‘and teach all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and behold, I am with you always even to the close of the age.’
  Bieler (80) & Conneely (43) Euntes ergo nunc docete omnes gentes baptizantes eas in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti docentes eos observare omnia quaecumque mandavi vobis: et ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem saeculi.
Matthew 28:19-20    
  Vulgate euntes ergo docete omnes gentes baptizantes eos in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti docentes eos servare omnia quaecumque mandavi vobis et ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem saeculi
  e (5th c. Italy)[1] Ite ergo docete omnes gentes baptizantes eos in nomine patris et fili et sps sancti docentes eos obserbare omnia quaecumque praecepi vobis et ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus usque ad consummationem saeculi. Amen.
  a (4th c. Italy) Euntes nunc docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine Patris, et Fili, et Spiritus Sancti docentes eos servare omnia quaecumque mandavi vobis. Et ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem saeculi. Amen.
  h (4th-5th c. Western Europe)[2] Euntes nunc docete omnes gentes baptizantes  eos in nomine patris et filii et spiritus  sancti docentes eos servare omnia quaecumque mandavi vobis.  Et ecce vobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem saeculi.

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SSP: Confessio 25 and Romans 8

This post is part of an ongoing series on the Scriptures of Saint Patrick of Ireland.

Confessio 25 & Romans 8:26  
Patrick O’Loughlin (154) ‘Likewise the Spirit helps the weakness of our prayers; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with ineffable sighs which cannot be expressed in words.’
  Bieler (72) & Conneely (37) Spiritus adiuuat infirmitates orationis nostrae: nam quod oremus sicut oportet nescimus: sed ipse Spiritus postulat pro nobis gemitibus inenarrabilibus…
Romans 8:26    
  Vulgate similiter autem et Spiritus adiuvat infirmitatem nostram nam quid oremus sicut oportet nescimus sed ipse Spiritus postulat pro nobis gemitibus inenarrabilibus
  d (5th c. France) Similiter autem et sps adiubat infirmitatem nam quid oremus si quod oportet nescimus sed ipse sps postulat gemitibus qui eloqui non possunt.
  f (8th-9thc. Western Europe)[1] Imilitur autem et sps adjuvat infirmitatem orationis nostrae; Nam quid oremus sicut oportet nescimus. Sed ipse sps postulat pro nobis gemitibus inenarrabilibus.
  z (8th c., British Isles)[2] Similiter aute et sps adiuuet infirmitatem nostrae; Na quid  oremus sicut oportet nescimus; Sed ipse sps postulat pro nobis gemitibus inenarrabilibus.

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