To this point it seems that using Bornkamm’s understanding of Luther’s doctrine would allow for little passivity from the Christian when their neighbor was confronted with evil. On the breadth of secular authority, Luther’s concern was that temporal authority must not endeavor to control the prescription of laws for the soul, for to do so would encroach upon Christ’s government, which would mislead and destroy souls. Luther speaks against both those leaders of God’s kingdom who have sought to control temporal matters such as land and animals, as well as those rulers of the temporal kingdom who have abandoned their just duties concerning land and property and have rushed into the insanity of attempting to exercise spiritual control over souls. Luther, citing St. Paul, St. Peter, King David, and Christ, argues that temporal authorities only have control over the physical body and outward actions, whereas bishops and leaders of the kingdom of God must live in a manner consistent with Christ’s standards of justice and use their office to serve their fellow Christians. Thus, in the understanding of how far temporal authority may reach, Luther both limits the use of temporal force in the kingdom of Christ, and proceeds to argue for greater temporal power in matters not directly under the control of the kingdom of the world. Continue reading
Erasmus of Rotterdam was the superstar academic of his era. Writing in a witty and generally well-received manner, he propagated the message of Classical Humanism throughout Europe, including calls to ad fontes (back to the sources) humanism and Church reform. This essay focuses on the Erasmian concepts of the Philosophy of Christ and the reform of the Church found in Sileni Alcibiadis (1515) and Paraclesis (preface to the Novem Testamentum, 1516). Evident throughout both of these works is that Erasmus believes adherence to the Philosophy of Christ will cultivate better Christians who are willing to reform the Church in accordance with the roots of faith in Christ.
Beginning Sileni Alcibiadis Erasmus compares several historical “sileni,” figures that outwardly were unimpressive or ugly but were in reality deities or important characters, with the late medieval Church. Taking note especially of Christ’s humble, unassuming, and servile character and life, Erasmus contrasts the extravagant, expensive, and warring Church of Rome with the character and life of true Christians. The Church has forsaken the “sileni” nature and character of Christ and has pursued the “worldly” pleasure of wealth, power, prestige, and land. Rome has forsaken the “pearl” of the message of Christ in favor of the gold and the riches of Old Imperial Rome. Forsaking inner values that are in accordance with the Gospel, the Church has turned to gold and political power. Those who claim to represent the Apostles do not live in the manner that the Apostles lived, nor do the things the Apostles do. Clearly from Erasmus’ perspective the Church was in need of a reform movement. His suggestions for reformation are in line with his general Classical Humanist program, in that he desires that the Church return to her roots in Christ, the Gospel, and the writings of Holy Scripture. Erasmus’ most enduring work, the 1516 Novem Testamentum edition of the Greek New Testament that was the foundation for numerous subsequent translations of the New Testament, represents an integral part of his program of reform, as he desired that the Church return to the basics of the faith. Continue reading