The Value of Luther’s Two Kingdoms Today

This post originally appeared at The Evangelical Pulpit as part of Patheos Evangelical’s Reformation Day celebration of Martin Luther’s influence on Western Christianity and Civilzation.

Luther Poting 95 ThesesWhen we think of Martin Luther, we tend to consider his Ninety-Five Theses, the “here I stand” statement of the Diet of Worms, the importance he placed on justification by faith, or his affirmation of the sola’s. Relatively little attention, at least among American Christians, is given to his political theology, his “Doctrine of the Two Kingdoms.” In many ways, this oversight remains unsurprising. The American government and economy are far more indebted to English and French thought than they are to the Germans. There is also that inconvenient historical problem regarding Luther’s influence on the Third Reich. Yet Luther’s thinking offers a rich foundation for thinking about the relationship between the Christian and secular authority. In this essay, I want to briefly introduce Luther’s “Two Kingdoms” doctrine and note some of its possible value for Christians today. Continue reading

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Luther on Secular Authority

Martin Luther
Martin Luther

No one even somewhat familiar with the life and work of Martin Luther would deny either that he wrote massive amounts of material over the course of his life or that he was extremely vitriolic and opinionated in some of these writings. For all of Luther’s famous reformation ideals and his seemingly deep pastoral intentions, for many scholars, Luther’s greatest legacy remains his darkest, namely the Lutheran heritage of Christian antinomianism and hatred for Jews that he bequeathed the German people. While few draw clear lines of connection between Luther and Hitler’s Third Reich, almost no serious scholar denies that some form of connection between the two most famous German men in Western history. Luther’s themes of Christian antinomianism and hatred for the Jewish people come across most clearly in On Secular Authority and On the Jews and Their Lies, respectively.  Throughout both of these writings, Luther speaks with characteristic zest and rhetorical flair, demonstrating his opinionated stance on both the relationship between sacred and secular authorities as well as the Jewish people. Determining an overarching theme to both of these works remains difficult, though one finds an interesting contrast between the uses of scriptural references in these two works. Overall, Luther’s main argument in On Secular Authority and On the Jews and Their Lies appears to be the clear superiority of Christ and His Church to any competing claims of authority, either on the secular level or among another religious group such as the Jewish people. Continue reading